Overview of the hottest Brunei press, publication

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Brunei is located in the north of Kalimantan island, adjacent to the South China Sea in the north, bordering on Sarawak in Malaysia on three sides, Southeast and West, and separated into two parts by lammon in Sarawak, with a land area of 5765 square kilometers. The population is 358000 (2004), of which Malays account for 66%, Chinese account for 11%, and other races account for 23%. Malay is the national language that can minimize energy input. English and Chinese are widely used. Islam is the state religion. The country is divided into four districts: Brunei Muara, belay, Dudong and tamburen. The major cities include the capital city of sribagawan, seria, Bray and tutong

Brunei was called Bo mud in ancient times. Islam was introduced into Sudan in the 15th century. At the beginning of the 16th century, the national strength was at its peak. Since the mid-16th century, Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands and Britain have invaded one after another. In 1888, it became a British protectorate and was occupied by Japan in 1941. In 1946, Britain resumed control over Brunei. In 1971, it signed a contract with Britain to obtain internal autonomy except for foreign affairs and defense affairs. On January 1st, 1984, it became completely independent and proclaimed the "Malay Islamic monarchy"

Brunei is a major oil producer in Southeast Asia and a major producer of liquefied natural gas in the world. The production and export of oil and gas account for 40% of GDP and 88% of total export revenue. Construction industry is an important industry next to oil and gas industry, and clothing industry is the second largest source of export income after oil and gas industry. The main problems in Brunei's economic development are the narrow domestic market, weak infrastructure, and the shortage of technology and talents

gross domestic product (GDP) in 2004: Brunei 8.769 billion (about US $5.34 billion), per capita GDP of Brunei 2450 (about US $15000). Brunei has the reputation of "a country of peace", with stable society and rich people. The state does not levy individual income tax, implements a free system of medical care and education at all levels, and subsidizes the expenses of studying abroad, but the expenses of Chinese schools are borne by individuals. Brunei has a strong religious color and Malay national tradition, forming the cultural characteristics of harmony, euphemism and humility

outline of the historical development of the industry

the scope of the ancient Malay cultural area includes the areas that today belong to Indonesia, Brunei and the Philippines. Most of the residents in this area are Malay, speak Malay and enjoy a common literature. Before the introduction of Islam in the 15th century, there were a large number of folklores and oral literature in the Malay cultural area. However, due to the late use of words in this area on the whole, few literary works have been preserved. Ancient written literary works that can still be seen are almost limited to Indonesia, mainly Java, some areas of Sumatra and Bali. Moreover, the ancient history of Southeast Asian island countries is relatively poor, with few historical works, and often mixed with many myths, stories and legends

Malay belongs to the Malay Polynesian language family. Originally written in Kawi (that is, Malay written in Arabic), it is still used on many occasions, such as personal signatures and public buildings. After the British entered in the 19th century, the Latin alphabet was used for writing. Brunei shares the same language and religion with Indonesia and Malaysia. Brunei has adopted the Malay Pinyin scheme of Indonesia to promote its use in China

in Brunei National Museum (built in 1963), cultural relics reflecting the civilization development history of northern Kalimantan nationalities since the 15th century are displayed. There are a large number of scriptures, documents, handwritten materials, ceramic vessels, exquisite ancient art glass jewelry, silver and copper jewelry, precious carpets and other handicrafts. These handicrafts left traces of the influence of Chinese, Indian and Indonesian civilizations

After the discovery of large oil fields in Brunei in 1929, British capital began to concentrate on Brunei, mining oil, producing rubber and establishing banks. Until 1963, the monopoly of exploration and exploitation of Brunei oil belonged to the British "shell oil company". The company played a very important role in the economic and social political life of Brunei at that time. In addition to the oil industry, the company also controls sea transportation, air transportation, automobile transportation, roads and power stations, and also has some enterprises in the commercial and service industries. The company also has an education center for training junior technicians, a school for workers' children, a hospital, a club, and a residential area for workers, and publishes a Salam weekly, which began to be published in 1955

Brunei founded six newspapers before independence. "The first written reading material" or "the first printed media" appeared in 1948. It was a newspaper founded by the British colonial authority for its subordinate staff. The other two newspapers, Brunei and the Daily Star, lasted only a few years. The other three survived after independence. First, the weekly newspaper Brunei lighthouse in Malay, with a circulation of only 4000 in the 1980s and 45000 in the 1990s, is free; Second, Brunei news in English, with a circulation of 10000; Another is the Borneo Gazette, an English language newspaper founded by a private company in 1954, which received government funding and basically reflected the views and positions of the government. In 1990, the newspaper was changed to a total circulation of 30000, of which 18000 were distributed in Brunei, the rest in Sabah and Sarawak, as well as Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia and other Southeast Asian countries. In addition, Brunei also has 5000 or 6000 foreign newspapers and magazines

after visiting Brunei in 1993, the people wrote that most newspapers and periodicals in Brunei are run by the government, such as the weekly pelida, the official gazette, and more than 20 magazines and publications such as the government digest for reference by Brunei embassies and consulates abroad and foreign diplomatic institutions in Brunei. The circulation of these newspapers and periodicals ranges from about 10000 to 45000. The only privately run newspaper is Brunei, which was originally a weekly newspaper with a circulation of 30000 or 40000 copies. Later, it was reduced to 9000 copies

compared with newspapers, Brunei's television and broadcasting industries are relatively developed and the penetration rate is relatively high. The most popular programs are programs, followed by entertainment programs

in addition, Brunei established a language and Literature Institute in 1961, which is responsible for studying the language, literature and art of the Malay nation and publishing works written by local writers in Malay. The Institute has a library, and its director Mohammed jamili is famous for collecting and publishing Brunei historical documents

basic status of the industry

administrative organization and management system. Brunei's administrative bodies are divided into four levels: Central, District, township and village. Publishing and cultural work throughout the country are under the unified management of the prime minister's office and the Ministry of culture, youth and sports

the prime minister's office is the center of Brunei's administrative system, which is specifically responsible by the Sudanese special adviser at the ministerial level. Guide and coordinate the work of various departments and assist Sudan in dealing with daily administrative affairs. The executive orders of Sudan are generally announced through the prime minister's office. The prime minister's office also has direct jurisdiction over 14 departments, including Brunei radio, Brunei television and Brunei Bureau

the policy maker of Brunei media is the Ministry of culture, youth and sports, which is in charge of culture and art. There are language and literature Bureau, language and Book Bureau, sports and Youth Bureau and Brunei National Museum. Another Brunei history center and Brunei arts and crafts center will be set up. Among them, language 1 can reach the flame retardant level of UL94V-0 without adding flame retardants. The Bureau of literature is responsible for promoting the development of Malay language, literature and culture in Brunei and holding seminars on Malay language, literature and poetry. The Chinese Library bureau is responsible for providing book services to the whole country and selling various publications, magazines and children's books. It is said that Brunei national library is still under preparation. At present, the National Bureau of language and culture is responsible for providing books for citizens to borrow. The Bureau has branches in four districts across the country and provides urban-rural mobile services for book borrowing. The Bureau has a collection of more than 300000 books, of which English and Malay books account for about half, and there are only more than 1000 books in other languages

the Brunei government implements a relatively strict management of the publishing media, emphasizing that the core of Brunei people's life is Islamic belief, loyalty to the monarch and civility. No one is allowed to destroy this way of life. A series of legal provisions have been formulated as a guarantee, such as the local newspaper law, the publishing law, and the relevant provisions of the association law, the riot law, the domestic security law, and the public order law

publishing and printing institutions. According to the announcement of Brunei prime minister's office, the legal publishing and printing institutions in Brunei are as follows:

1 There are 15 publishing houses (companies): Avesta Publishing Co., Ltd., candlelight publishing company, ceria cipta publishing and advertising, de 'traditional publishing, IDA envoys Publishing Co., Ltd., etc

2. There are 102 printing companies. Acton paper and printing company, Akbar printing and trading company, milia printing, A.A. visual innovation printing and trading, ah light printing, Alwan printing and trading, etc. The processes used include offset printing, silk screen printing, UV printing, TCS printing, etc

3. There are 16 bookstores (booksellers): a siuuni book supplier, b.m.d bookstore, cahaya remaja bookstore, traditional bookstore, de 'Sarjana bookstore, etc

publishing media. At the "China ASEAN media cooperation seminar" held in 2002, Haji Ratti, representative of the office of the Prime Minister of Brunei, introduced the development of Brunei media: "We have seven newspapers, including two and five weekly newspapers. Our newspapers usually also have Chinese versions. Brunei Chinese readers, who mainly rely on Chinese newspapers, have a circulation of about 10000 copies. Brunei media property rights: three newspapers are owned by the government, and the other four newspapers are owned by the private sector. In Brunei, we also provide other newspaper services, including some for the public Service newspaper. Brunei also imports a large number of foreign publications, including those from Europe, other Asian countries and the United States, in order to enrich the reading content of our local people, and further promote the development of Brunei's cutting and cutting industry in the post-aging era. Brunei has a large proportion of floating population, and Brunei must provide them with information about the entry of foreign countries. In 1997, we further adjusted the media industry, further strengthened the cooperation between the public sector and the private sector, and further standardized the property rights of Brunei's domestic media. "

at present, the main newspapers and periodicals in Brunei are:

Brunei lighthouse. Major weekly reports of Brunei government. Founded in 1956, it is sponsored by the prime minister's Government Bureau and published in Malay every Wednesday, with a circulation of 45000 copies, which are available to the public free of charge

Brunei Darussalam newsletter. Founded in October, 1985, it is an English biweekly, hosted by the prime minister's office and bureau, with a circulation of 12000 copies, which are available to the public for free

daily summary. Hosted by the prime minister's office, 200 copies (English version) are printed and distributed every day, mainly for internal reference of the government

Brunei today. Hosted by the prime minister's office and bureau, the English monthly magazine is a comprehensive journal mainly introducing Brunei's national conditions

in addition, the Brunei government also publishes an official gazette

Borneo Gazette. Brunei is mainly commercial (in English and Malay), with a daily circulation of 70000 copies. Malaysian Chinese "Meili", "Shihua", "international times" and "Star Island" have Brunei editions in Brunei

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